At the time this article was
written Gaston Bernier was Assistant Director of the National Assembly
Legislative Library in Quebec City. His paper was originally delivered to a
meeting of the Canadian Study of Parliament Group in October 1988.
Members of Parliament and
politicians cannot limit themselves to looking at only one source of
information. In the course of their work, they rely on a wide variety of
sources. Sometimes they consult their colleagues, sometimes they look to
specialists, sometimes they draw inspiration from their constituents.
Any regular visitor to a parliament
building will readily acknowledge the importance of newspapers in these halls:
newspapers are read at breakfast, political attachés and colleagues of
parliamentarians always have a newspaper in their hands. Even during sittings
of the House, they continue to catch up with the latest news by reading media
It seems obvious that newspapers,
current affairs and the news are of primary importance for the political world.
However, the extent of the written and electronic press phenomenon as a source
of information remains to be assessed. In this study we will try to do this in
three separate ways. First, we will give you the highlights of a survey of
members of the Quebec National Assembly; second, we will try to assess the
degree to which newspapers are consulted for question period, finally, we will
evaluate newspaper holdings and services related to newspapers in parliamentary
libraries, for if it is true that the news provides important information to
parliamentarians, then newspapers must also play a very important role.
During the months of September and
October, a questionnaire was sent to a total of 86 backbenchers in the National
Assembly. The purpose of the questionnaire was to assess parliamentarians' view
of the utility of the news and newspapers in comparison with other sources of
information. However, the popularity of newspapers is not as clear-cut as we
had assumed. Perhaps the questionnaire (with only ten questions) was too short
and perhaps it was too rudimentary. Since we did not want to take up too much
of the member's time, we made it possible to answe all the questions in 10
The first question was, "What
do you think is the most useful source of information?" Members were asked
to identify the most useful source from among a list of seven -- constituents'
mail, telephone calls, newspapers, media reviews, press clippings, radio and
television news, and the full proceedings of debates. Overall, 39 per cent
checked the media reviews, 18 per cent newspapers and 12 per cent the press
clippings service. A small number went with telephone calls (9 per cent) and
constituents' mail (6 per cent). Radio and television news, and proceedings of
debates, were completely ignored or considered unimportant.
The second question asked each
respondent to arrange the sources of information listed in the first question
in order of usefulness.
In general, the choices made in the
first question were confirmed. The media review continued in first place and
was followed by newspapers, radio and television news, press clippings and
telephone calls. Once again, little importance was given to the proceedings of
debates and mail to members from constituents. We must however avoid hasty
conclusions: if a weighing were to be given, the order might change.
The next question dealt with the most
reliable source of information. We found it interesting and somehow surprising
that the highest marks went to mail from constituents (39 per cent) when this
source of information had been almost totally disregarded until this question.
Other highly reliable sources were telephone calls and newspapers (15 per cent
each), the record of proceedings (12 per cent) and press clippings (3 per
The fourth and fifth questions
dealt with the source of information preferred by members depending on whether they
were in their riding or in the capital.
Briefly, when members were in their
own riding, it appeared that they greatly preferred the local press (60 per
cent). The percentages fell rapidly: 18 per cent of members checked telephone
calls and 9 per cent correspondence.
Responses were more evenly
distributed when members were in the capital. Major daily newspapers were
considered more important than local newspapers but they did not hold a
monopoly: 36 per cent of members felt that they were most important, the same
number felt that the media review was most important, and 18 per cent (half as
many) said that telephone calls were their preferred source of information.
The record of proceedings, and
radio and television news, appear relatively less important, no matter whether
the member is in his home riding or the capital.
The seventh question read as
follows: "Among official publications, which are the most useful to you as
a member: annual reports from departments and agencies, revised statutes, regulations,
record of proceedings, press releases, statistical publications, texts of press
conferences, media reviews (such as Argus), studies, reports of committees,
task forces, ad so forth, and other sources?" As you can see, the list
contained both publications related to current affairs and others of a less
transient nature. Members once again favoured publications of short-lived
value: the media review (rather artificially classified as an official
publication) was rated the highest (23 per cent), followed by annual reports
and press releases (13 per cent each), Regulations and revised statutes came at
the bottom of the list.
The eighth question, and the last
question for which I will give the results, dealt with the publications that a
library should have on hand. It read as follows: "Among the following
holdings, identify the two that are the most important for a parliamentary
library to keep." Six were listed: newspapers, official documents,
monographs and books, scientific magazines, reference works and, finally,
brochures. This time, the newspapers were beaten, for members rated official
documents the highest (35 per cent), followed by reference works (23 per cent),
newspapers (20 per cent), monographs (17 per cent) and, in last place,
scientific magazines (12 per cent).
I think that we can state that
current affairs counts for a great deal among members in their daily lives, and
that they are very appreciative when it is given to them in a consolidated
form, in a manner that is manageable and easily digested. Furthermore, it seems
that despite a marked preference for journalistic writing, members look
nostalgically to the wealth of so-called official documents and would like
libraries to keep them.
Members' perception of the importance
of the press as a source of information is interesting from several points of
view. However, the exactitude and fairness of this perception still have to be
assessed. In order to do so, we scanned a number of plenary sessions in the
National Assembly, chosen at random, and we paid special attention to the
question period: the weeks we selected were February 5 to 8, 1963, December 13
to 16, 1982 and March 17 to 19, 1987.
In total, over the eight sittings
when question period was held, the Government was asked 54 questions on current
affairs. In 12 out of the 54 questions, members specifically identified
newspapers as a source of information or the starting point for their
This means that on 12 occasions
members referred to newspapers in their questions. I will give examples from
among the 12 cases found. On February 8, 1963, Mr. Maurice Bellemare asked
about the traffic on the Sainte-Anne-de-la-Perade Bridge as follows: "… I
saw again, in the newspapers, a statement by the Minister that there was urgent
work to be done there…." Example 2: on December 13, 1982, Mr. Polack asked
a question about the language of government advertising and his introduction
read, "I have read and I have in front of me a copy of The Gazette for
In all, if the weeks selected are
representative, approximately one-fifth of all questions addressed to members
are based n the written press. This is probably a very low estimate for it is
very possible that the source used for the question was not always explicitly
mentioned. I think that if we systematically compared the oral questions with
the newspapers for the preceding days, we would find other relations and
connections between the questions and the news. Furthermore, the replies to the
tenth question of the survey provided by the members of the National Assembly
indicate that newspapers are used much more frequently than a review of the
proceedings of the debates would lead us to believe.
The question read as follows:
"What are the sources of information that are used for preparing or
planning question period? Please name three."
The questionnaires received up to
now show that newspapers are the documents or sources used most frequently
during the preparation of question period. More than four out of five members
identified them specifically. Three out of five members cited radio and
television news as an important source of information. In all, newspapers,
radio and television excluded almost all other sources.
The usefulness of the media as a source
of information can also be measured by the number of subscriptions and
collections in parliamentary libraries, services downstream from the first
publication (media reviews, repeat broadcasts of radio and television
bulletins) and work instruments designed to make it easier to consult back
issues of newspapers.
One conclusion must be drawn in
this regard: parliamentary libraries are major subscribers to and users of
In Europe, results of an inventory
of services provided in the parliaments of member States of the European
community were published in 1980. Statistics were given on the number of
subscriptions held by each institution. Two points come to light in a review of
these statistics: there is considerable difference between libraries: for
instance, regarding only newspapers, the library of the Luxembourg assembly
received eight, and the lower houses of the British and Belgian parliaments
received 100 each; if we exclude the Luxembourg extreme, the average number of
subscriptions to newspapers was 85.
A few special cases in other areas
deserve some attention. According to the study, the library of the lower house
in Denmark received 80 newspapers and 25 local newspapers at the beginning of
the 1980s. In France at that time, the library of the National Assembly
received 584 newspapers, periodicals and reviews. It is difficult to compare
this figure with the average of 85 established earlier. Fortunately, a more
recent publication, published under the direction of Mr. D. Engerfield, states
that the institution makes available to French members the Paris dailies (about
ten) and the 67 newspapers from outside Paris in their 300 different editions.
This information seems to indicate a certain infatution with this type of
document. Similarly, the case in the German Bundestag is interesting: the
library received 220 national and foreign newspapers and, in addition, 280
The space given to newspapers in
Canadian legislative libraries is similar to that in comparable institutions in
For many years, the library of the
Canadian Parliament has made a wide range of newspapers available to its
members. A study on the libraries' research holdings published in 1974 by the
National Library of Canada states, ""[trans] It is interesting to
note that the Library of Parliament receives approximately 640 daily and weekly
Canadian newspapers reserved for the exclusive use of members and senators,
Supreme Court judges and parliamentary correspondents." At present, the
Library receives 620 newspapers, including 129 dailies and 473 weeklies.
In Toronto, the library at Queen's
Park received 298 newspapers in March 1987 and 304 in March 1988.
At the National Assembly in Quebec
City, tradition prevails: the library subscribed to 251 newspapers in 1986/87
and 254 in 1987/88.
In and of themselves, these data do
not give a complete picture; they are above all ambiguous, for the situation
may well be the same in other types of libraries such as university and
municipal libraries. Mini-surveys of Laval University and the municipal library
in Quebec City show that they receive 120 and 46 newspapers respectively. This
means that the library of the National Assembly receives twice as many
newspapers as Laval University and five times as many as the Gabrielle Roy
Therefore, legislative libraries
are large consumers of newspapers and this is probably because of the interest
parliamentarians and their colleagues have in these publications.
The importance of the news and
current affairs in general for parliamentarians is also illustrated by the
existence of press clipping services within the parliamentary libraries, by the
existence of thematic or subject files, and by the broad distribution of the
In the European community, five
parliamentary libraries out of nine, or six out of ten if the European
Parliament itself is included, provide a press information service, which is
mentioned specifically in the description of services. It is very possible that
other libraries provide the same type of service without identifying it as
Canadian parliamentary libraries
provide a similar service. Teams tasked with scanning and preparing files of
press clippings were set up in the sixties in the Library of Parliament, in the
seventies in the National Assembly, and later in the Ontario Legislative
The popularity of press clippings
in parliaments, as shown by the existence of specialized services, can also be measured
by the wide distribution of photocopies of newspaper articles.
In Toronto at the Legislative
Assembly, an average of 1,700,000 photocopies of newspaper articles were
distributed between 1983/84 and 1987/88 -- 13,000 photocopies of articles per
year per member. At the National Asembly, the floodgates are not open as
widely, but newspaper articles are also distributed here in industrial
quantities: more than 800,000 photocopies per year have been sent to various
users since 1983, which represents about 6,400 copies per member.
The usefulness of information taken
from newspapers is also confirmed by the establishment and continual updating
of clippings files and especially by how intensively they are consulted.
In 1985/86 at the Library of
Parliament, users had access to 2,961 current files and 4,293 so-called
historical files. During that year, the collection was used to find answers to
5,168 questions submitted to the Library, and the files have been consulted
nearly 16,000 times in total.
In Quebec City, the staff at the
library of the National Assembly updates on a daily basis nearly 450 files of
articles from newspapers. However, the files seem to be consulted a great deal
less frequently than at the federal library: only 700 questions were answered
in 1987/88. This may be a consequence of the wide distribution of newspaper
Coming after the number of
subscriptions and the establishment of clippings files, a third indicator --
the establishment of alphabetical tables and indexes -- makes it possible to
illustrate the usefulness of news in the eyes of parliamentarians and their
At the Quebec National Assembly, an
alphabetical file of news and articles published in a number of Quebec's daily
newspapers was set up between 1956 and 1966. This achievement is forgo ten
today when there are so many newspaper indexes and essential needs have been
met. However, the index that was begun in 1956 is none the less symptomatic.
Other Canadian legislative
libraries have developed the same type of system. I am thinking in particular
of British Columbia, and there are no doubt others.
In Europe, newspapers are indexed
in one form or another at the libraries of the Belgian parliament, the Danish
Folketing and the French National Assembly.
The current presence on the market
of excellent alphabetical tables for national papers, at least in North
America, has led to the abandonment of the National Assembly's indexing
program. It is possible that it may be revived, for local and regional newspapers
are still not indexed and are difficult to access. I think that sooner or later
the needs and desires of parliamentarians will lead to the re-establishment of
some kind of indexing program that is of course complementary to the indexes
that are currently available.
The compulsive consumption by
parliamentarians of any type of news has produced a new offspring: media
reviews. Since 1977 the Quebec National Assembly has published during the
session a daily bulletin containing a selection of articles that might be of
interest to the members, their colleagues and parliamentary staff. With a
limited number of copies and limited distribution, this periodical has been
enrmously successful and is in its eleventh year of publication. Other media
reviews have sprung up since: Quorum at the federal parliament, and Toronto
Press Today and Provincial Press at the Ontario Legislative Assembly.
The services described above linked
with the news -- newspapers in their original form, clippings, indexes and
media reviews -- are related to traditional forms of support. They probably
will not disappear because of new technology, but newspapers and their
by-products will have to compete with newcomers to the market which contribute
to the diversification of sources of information: repeat broadcasts of
television news programs in the assemblies' internal broadcasting networks, and
their establishment of tape and audiovisual libraries, and, finally, on-line
use of textual data banks for certain newspapers.
The systematic playback of
television news programs in the internal communication networks and the
broadcasting of public affairs programs on these networks on request is
relatively recent. The Canadian federal Parliament has used this service for a
few years. The Quebec Parliament recently followed suit. If the others do not
already have this service, they will soon.
The Library of Parliament also have
an audiovisual library which had more than 3,000 titles in 1985/86, 560 more
than 1984/85. At the beginning of October 1988, Quorum mentioned video cassette
Video cassettes appear to respond
to a need if we look at statistics: 67 cassettes were loaned in 1981/82, 600
were loaned in 1985/86.
Finally, the last piece of the
picture: textual data bases. For a number of months, and years in some cases,
it has been possible to have direct access to the texts of some newspapers: the
Financial Times, the Toronto Star and the Ottawa Citizen.
I have not seen any statistics on
the use of these data banks by parliamentary libraries. However, if we rely on
the intense use of printed papers, we have serious reason to believe that
parliamentary libraries are major users of these data banks. On the other hand,
on-line access to computerized newspaper indexes may suggest trends that can be
observed in the future. At the National Assembly, Quebec was the third most
frequently consulted data base in 1987/88, behind Repéré and Dobis, The
National Newspaper Index was used eight times less frequently than Quebec.
These scanty data seem to indicate:
1) the importance of databases on current affairs, and 2) that their use is
more frequent when they concern the news about a specific political entity.
The efforts and the resources
devoted by parliamentary libraries to services involving newspapers are
significant. The diversity of services provided is rarely found in other types
of libraries. One who was unaware of the milieu might well believe that
unjustified importance is granted to this source of information. It has been
shown that current affairs are a basi for and are used by parliamentarians in
preparing for question period. In addition, the results of the survey show that
the members always look to the media to find the line that they or their party
could develop, or the crack that needed to be sealed urgently.