By spring 2006, Canadiana.org will be nearing completion of its rather
ambitious project to digitise Canada's major official publications from
the 18th and 19th centuries. Upon completion of the project, over 1.5 million
pages of some of this country's most important documentary heritage, such
as its acts, debates, legislative journals and sessional papers, will be
available, with full text searching, on the Early Canadiana Online (ECO)
site www.canadiana.org. Just what is Canadiana.org and how did this small,
non-profit organization come to build the most comprehensive on-line collection
of early Canadian legislative materials in just six short years?
Canadiana.org (formerly known as the Canadian Institute for Historical
Microreproductions (CIHM)), was launched in 1978 by the Canada Council.
In 1969, the academic community protested when the Council terminated a
program of assistance to university libraries. In response, the Council
convened a group of librarians and scholars, known as the Consultative
Group on University Research Libraries, to report on the problems facing
university libraries, and to advise on solutions.
The Consultative Group's Report, published in 1978, noted two key problems:
a lack of access to Canada's published heritage, and secondly, a need for
this heritage collection to be preserved for future generations. Regarding
the former concern, researchers were having difficulty accessing older
collections because they were so unevenly distributed across Canada. Much
money and time was being spent traveling to libraries that were (understandably)
unwilling to loan out their rarest materials. In regards to the latter
concern preservation many of the publications from the 18th, 19th and
early 20th centuries were deteriorating due to heavy use. The Report noted:
We are faced with the alarming prospect that students in future generations
will have very little early Canadian material to study, unless some large
and constructive measures are taken immediately.1
The Report recommended that the Canada Council endow an appropriate organization
with the sum of $2 million
to be used exclusively for the creation of
a microform Canadiana collection ....2 This national organization, by
reproducing older books onto preservation quality microfiche and then distributing
the microfiche to subscribing libraries, could address the dual concerns
of access and preservation. Canada Council acted on the recommendation
and Canadiana.org (or CIHM as it was originally known) came into existence.
In its 28 years of operation, Canadiana.org has created several products
and in the process has built the largest single collection of early published
Canadiana in the world.
For the first twenty-two years of its existence, Canadiana.org's collections
were distributed in microfiche format. Its microfiche collection of early
Canadian books, annuals, and periodicals, comprises over 90,000 titles
on 270,000 microfiche. In 1996, while still involved in microfilming, Canadiana.org
began also to move into the digital realm. As a pilot project, Canadiana.org,
along with fellow project partners Library and Archives Canada (LAC),
the University of Toronto and Laval University Library and with substantial
support from the Mellon Foundation, undertook one of the first large-scale
digital projects in Canada. A selection of approximately 3000 Canadiana.org
microfiche titles were digitised (outsourced to OCLC Preservation Service
Centers) and published on Canadiana.org's new website Early Canadiana Online
(ECO) at www.canadiana.org. These digitised titles were grouped into six
thematic collections: English Canadian Literature, Native Studies, Canadian
Women's History, History of French Canada, Hudson's Bay and Jesuit Relations.
ECO was an instant success, with over eight million hits received in its
first year! Researchers were enthused with the digital version of books,
for it now meant that early Canadiana could be accessed from the comfort
of their homes or offices, resulting in a reduction in the amount of time
and money spent on the traveling formerly needed to access these materials.
Encouraged by this success, Canadiana.org decided that its next project,
Canada in the Making (CITM) the reproduction of early Canadian official
publications would be distributed solely in a digital format.
Why Official Publications?
Canadiana.org's mandate to digitise early government publications was given
in a survey conducted on its behalf in 1997. The survey was aimed primarily
at the two groups which collaborate most closely with the organization
librarians and scholars. When asked what Canadiana.org's next project
should be, older official publications were given top priority.3
Indeed, it is not too difficult to understand why such high importance
was given to these types of publications. Government documents were one
of the first items to roll off the printing presses when the publishing
industry was first introduced in mid-eighteenth century Canada. From that
time onwards, governments have taken on many important roles in print culture
author, publisher, printer, shipper or distributor, bookseller, etc.4
Government documents have played a key role in chronicling Canadian policy,
thought and culture. As they do today, the early official publications
covered a broad range of topics. They are essential for the study of Canada's
development and governance, and are of immense value to researchers in
Each generation likes to think itself more enlightened than the ones that
came before. However, a quick glance at many of these publications reveals
that 200 years ago, the movers and shakers of Canadian society were grappling
(and at times in an innovative fashion) with many of the same issues being
discussed in the legislature today environmental concerns, ensuring adequate
health care, cultural pluralism, poverty and homelessness, Canada-USA relations,
treatment of aboriginals, etc.
Yet, no single library has a complete collection of even the major government
publications such as the acts, parliamentary journals, debates and sessional
papers. Hence, anyone wishing to access this dispersed material must be
prepared to make extensive use of interlibrary loans and in many cases
travel considerable distances to consult rare and fragile books that seldom
leave their library home. By digitising these scattered collections, Canadiana.org
is able to bring them together in a single accessible collection, thereby
providing a valuable resource for the study of Canada in all disciplines.
As one of the first steps in getting the new project underway, Canadiana.org
established an Advisory Committee and a Focus Group, made up of scholars
and librarians with interest in the field. The collection parameters of
the project were set after extensive consultation with these two groups,
as well as telephone discussions with government document librarians across
the country. Initially it was hoped that all pre-1921 official publications
would be scanned. However, as it became clear that the number of pre-1921
official publications was much larger (over ten million pages and counting)
than originally anticipated, it was realized that this was not possible.
Digitising at the proposed rate of 250,000 pages/year, it would take forty
years to digitise ten million pages. Such a massive project was beyond
Canadiana.org's abilities, both in terms of time and money.
Consequently, the Advisory Committee and the Focus Group were asked to
prioritize the types of publications to be digitised. It was decided that
the project would focus on materials published in 1900 and earlier and
that the main legislative materials (i.e. bills, statutes, sessional papers,
debates, journals, etc.) would take first priority. Canadiana.org would
digitise colonial materials published before Confederation. However, for
the time period 1867-1900, only federal materials would be included. (To
add provincial and territorial materials for this period would have expanded
the life of the project by at least two or three more years.) Municipal
government publications and archival materials would not be included in
The main categories of materials scanned are:
Acts (or statutes): Close to 150 years of acts, from Nova Scotia's acts
beginning in 1758, up to the Federal acts passed in 1900, are being digitised.
- Debates: For many of the jurisdictions, debates were not published in the
earlier years. For example, in pre-1867 Canada, only the Maritime Provinces
of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island published official
debates, albeit in a rather sporadic fashion.
- Sessional Papers: Both quantitatively and qualitatively speaking, the Sessional
Papers are a significant part of the Official Publications database. ECO
is digitising the over 800 volumes (over 600,000 pages) of Sessional Papers
(in English and French) for the years 1860 to 1900. These papers are prized
by researchers because they cover an incredibly diverse range of subjects
such as international affairs, education, immigration and colonization,
commerce, banking and trade, transportation (railway, roads and canals),
natural resources (minerals, fishery and lumber), the legal system, military
affairs, technology, science and health care.
- Journals (and their appendices): These are the official records of the
decisions and transactions of the legislatures. They are basically minutes,
detailing when various government committees were formed and when bills,
returns, committee and departmental reports were introduced. The Journal
appendices contain reports on a wide variety of topics. (Thanks to funding
from Canadian Heritage's Canadian Culture Online program, all pre-Confederation
journals and appendices, as well as the Journals of the House of Commons
for the years 1867-1900, are made available in the open access part of
- Royal Commission reports: These commissions have traditionally been established
to investigate extraordinary problems or solicit informed opinions on controversial
matters and to set government policy.
- Bills: For bills introduced prior to 1860, 1st readings, and for those
bills for which 1st readings are not available, the 2nd reading, will be
digitised. (This decision was made due to the fact that relatively few
of the older 1st reading bills are still in existence). For the period
from 1860 to 1900, because of the immense numbers available, only 1st readings
will be digitised.
- Committee reports: The published reports of both standing and special committees
are being digitised. Committee reports were often also published in the
Journals or their Appendices, or the Sessional Papers. In such cases, in
order to avoid duplication, only the report as published in the Journals,
Appendices or Sessional Papers, will be digitised.
- Departmental commission reports: These are commissions established by the
minister of a department to investigate matters of public concern. These
commissions often rank in importance to a Royal Commission. Only a handful
of these commission reports will be digitised, since, prior to 1900, very
few were published.
- Official publications from France and Great Britain that relate to the
governance of Canada: This collection consists of over 1000 documents such
as acts, bills, correspondence and reports. These records are significant,
since much of Canada's early history was largely determined by decisions
made in the British and French Parliaments. The collection includes over
600 19th Century British Parliamentary papers that directly relate to Canada.
Also included are more than 100 Arrests of France's Conseil d'État regulating
life in 17th and 18th century Canada.
- Ordinances: These are legislative enactments produced by a governor, acting
unilaterally or with the advice of a council, in the absence of an elected
legislative body. A number of these are being digitised, most notably those
from Quebec during the period 1764-1791 and Lower Canada, 1838-1841.
- Regulations: They are a form of delegated legislation. That is, Parliament,
by statute, confers upon an outside authority the right to make rules,
regulations, etc., which have the force of law. Over 150 regulations, beginning
in the late 1700s up to 1900, have been digitised.
- Treaties and conventions: There are various types of treaties regulating
trade, establishing territorial boundaries, forming alliances or making
peace. Dozens of these treaties that directly or indirectly affect Canada
have been digitised, from the peace treaty between France and Native Canadians
in 1666, to the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, to agreements relating to the
Alaska boundary dispute in the 1890s.
All of the categories listed above except
Journals and Federal Debates,
are available by subscription only.
The above items make up the main part of the Early Official Publications
collection. However, there are many other interesting odds and ends that
do not fit into these categories. Items such as Civil Service lists (detailing
the thousands of Canadians employed by the government from 1885 to 1900);
guides for prospective immigrants to Canada; select speeches (of John A.
MacDonald, Joseph Howe, Sir Charles Tupper, Henri Bourassa and others)
and rules for parliamentary procedure and rules for courts.5
The ECO website also includes an educational resources section, which builds
upon ECO's digital collections of books. This section has three main parts:
lesson plans; the Exploration, the Fur Trade and Hudson's Bay Company
section, and the Canada in the Making section. The latter section is designed
to complement Canadiana.org's database of official publications, and integrates
narrative text with links to these official publications. There are three
main themes: Constitutional history; Aboriginals: treaties & relations,
and Pioneers and immigrants.
A Special Project with the Library of Parliament
The federal Reconstituted Debates edited, published and digitised under
the auspices of the Library of Parliament is hosted by Canadiana.org on
the open access section of ECO.6
Throughout this project, Canadiana.org has worked closely with the Library
of Parliament. Many books have been borrowed from their historical collections,
and staff from the Library have generously offered their expert advice
on many occasions. In 2005, this cooperation with the library extended
into new areas, as Canadiana.org became the fortunate recipient of the
digital images of the Reconstituted Debates.
As has been well detailed in an article on the
Reconstituted Debates 7
there were no official debates published for the early years of Canada's
Parliament. Official reporting of the debates was undertaken by the Senate
only in 1871 and by the House of Commons in 1875. Prior to those dates,
the only record left to Canadians is that from the newspapers of the day
where the debates were recorded unofficially, and in abbreviated, colourful
(and sometimes biased) form. For the past forty years, the Library has
been painstakingly piecing these debates back together, by merging the
reports from various newspapers. Begun as a Centennial project (1967),
with the editorial assistance of various distinguished Canadians (such
as historians Peter B. Waite and David Farr, former Assistant Parliamentary
Librarian A. Pamela Hardisty, and political scientist Norman Ward), nine
of the missing debates have been edited, translated and published by the
Library. Canadiana.org is pleased to be including the digital editions
of these debates (generously provided by the Library of Parliament) on
the open access section of ECO. Currently, this collection consists of
the House of Commons Debates (for the years 1867/68, 1869 and 1870) and
the Senate Debates (for the years 1867/68, 1869, 1870 and 1871). The Reconstituted
Debates for additional years will be added to ECO as they are made available
The Production Process
One of the first steps of any Canadiana.org project, is the creation of
an in-house database of all possible titles that may be considered for
scanning in any given project. This usually ends up being a huge bibliography
of titles. Gathering descriptive information about books is a very time-consuming
process. For example, two university students spent one entire summer examining
the retrospective official publications collection at LAC, going through
the massive collection, shelf by shelf, book by book. (Canadiana.org, having
limited staff and resources, is grateful for the Summer Career Placements
and the Young Canada Works in Heritage Organizations programs for their
substantial support in the hiring of students over many summers.)
Selection of material for digitisation is also a slow process. The official
publications in-house database contains close to 40,000 titles. However,
only a small portion of these titles (perhaps 20%) will actually be chosen
for inclusion in the online collection. As mentioned, titles are chosen
using the guidelines established by the Advisory Committee and Focus Group.
Once selected to be part of the online collection, the next step in production
is to track down a copy of the book suitable for scanning.
Canadiana.org is not a library. It does not have any original copies of
books, and hence relies on the goodwill and cooperation of Canadian libraries
to lend to it the books that it scans from.
Over the years, Canadiana.org has borrowed books from over 200 libraries
and other cultural organizations across Canada, as well as a handful of
libraries in the United States. This cooperation is vital to Canadiana.org
and the organization is especially indebted to Library and Archives Canada
(LAC) who, from the beginning, have generously allowed access to their
collections. Indeed more than 50% of the titles that have been scanned
for the CITM project, have been from LAC collections. Canadiana.org is
grateful to be housed at in the LAC building at 395 Wellington St., Ottawa.
It makes for a more efficient operation that the organization can be close
to the materials that are being scanned.
As well, books have also been borrowed extensively from the Library of
Parliament, with over 2000 titles having been scanned from their collections.
However, not all books can be borrowed from local libraries many titles
are only available in libraries outside the Ottawa region. Materials have
been generously loaned from legislative, academic and public libraries
across Canada from St. John's to Victoria. For a list of lending libraries,
please visit http://www.canadiana.org/cihm/lenders.html.
Many items have been particularly difficult to track down. Matters are
complicated by the fact that Canadiana.org tries to find the most complete
copy of an item. This can mean looking at several copies of a single book
from one end of the country to the other a very time consuming process.
For this project, Regional Researchers have been hired in St. John's, Halifax,
Quebec City, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, London and Vancouver/Victoria.
Their job is to essentially discover new titles, assist in finding the
most complete copy of a title and arrange for the borrowing of materials.
Most libraries usually do not provide detailed holding descriptions for
serial titles such as the statutes, debates, journals, etc. Hence the researchers
must visit the library to determine the actual holdings. As well, if Canadiana.org
is interested in borrowing a particular item from a library outside of
Ottawa, the researcher will first visit the library and meticulously go
through the book to make sure no pages are missing or badly damaged. Only
if the book is complete, will it be borrowed (unless it is the best copy
available). The Appendix to the ... Journals of the House of Assembly of
the province of Lower-Canada provides an excellent illustration of how
difficult it can be to track down all complete copies of a serial title.
For example, there were thirty-one issues of this serial published between
1809 and 1837. Canadiana.org examined seventy-three different copies of
these issues in nine different libraries in order to find copies that would
be best for digitisation.
Once brought in-house, the book is then catalogued. All cataloguing conforms
to the Anglo American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2). English and
French publications are catalogued in the language of the original publication.
Once catalogued, the books are then examined page by page to make sure
pages aren't missing, or out of order, or damaged. If the book is deemed
unsuitable for scanning (due to any of the above mentioned problems), then
another copy is sought.
Metadata is created for each title and for each issue of a serial publication.
(Metadata is basically information about information.) It is used by Canadiana.org
for descriptive, technical, preservation and administrative purposes. Creating
metadata is a very labour intensive process, as it involves manually entering
information about each page of the book into the computer.
Scanning, Cleaning and Proofing
Once the cataloguing and metadata are created, the item can then be scanned.
After initially outsourcing the two main technical processes the actual
scanning and the digital transcribing of the text (OCR), Canadiana.org
has brought both of these processes in-house. In 2001, Canadiana.org's
electronic systems specialist, William Wuepplemann, after extensive testing,
was able to set up an effective in-house OCR system using Prime Recognition
Software. (Because the materials being scanned are older and often have
faint printing or unusual fonts, the accuracy rate for the OCR text files
is not perfect usually over 90%, but less for books with faint print
or ones that use the earlier forms of letters for example, f was used
as a s.) In 2004, a Zeutschel OS 10000 scanner was purchased and staff
began to scan materials in-house. Images are scanned at 400 dpi in black
and white and are stored as compressed TIFF files. Bringing the processes
of OCR and scanning in-house has allowed the organization more control
over the quality of images produced and better production scheduling
all in a more cost efficient manner.
Scanning is not always a straightforward process. Although a high-end model
scanner is used, even with various adjusted settings, it is not always
possible to produce an acceptable image. This is especially true for books
where the print is faint on certain pages. In such cases, it was found
helpful to first photocopy the faint page using settings on the photocopier
to darken the text, and then scan from the photocopied page. For the early
issues of the Sessional Papers, it was not unusual to photocopy several
dozen pages per volume! (Such a procedure was done as a last resort, after
checking to see if other copies had better print.)
Once a book has been scanned, a staff member then goes through the scanned
images, page by page, in order to clean the item (for e.g. straightening
the image if it is crooked, removing blotches created by dust particles,
etc.). Later, another staff member again examines the book page by page,
this time ensuring that pages have not been missed, repeated or scanned
out of order. Much time is spent on quality control.
Once the images are made available on ECO, researchers can access them
in several ways through full-text searching (searches on the complete
text of the document as well as the metadata), searching of the author,
title, subject, publisher, etc., or browsing (author, title, subject, publisher,
There are currently close to 14,000 volumes (about 2.2 million pages) on
ECO. The collection is growing at a rate of over 250,000 pages per year.
ECO usage continues to rise substantially every year. While ECO in its
first year received 8 million hits, in 2005 there were over 46 million
hits, with an average of almost 27,000 pages viewed per day. (In the month
of November 2005, the website had 5 million hits!)
This six-year project proved to be a model of private public partnership.
Revenues were obtained from the following sources: ECO subscriptions, private
and corporate donations, government grants (most notably Canadian Heritage's
Canadian Culture Online program) and microfiche sales. In addition, Library
and Archives Canada has provided substantial in-kind support.9
Other Official Publications Digitisation Projects
Canadiana.org is, of course, not the only organization involved in digitising
Canada's major government publications. With such massive quantities of
government publications already in existence and numerous more being produced
every year, there is still much work to be done in making these materials
more readily available and there is certainly room for many players on
this stage. The Parliament of Canada Web site (managed jointly by the Senate
and the House of Commons working together with the Library of Parliament)
is an excellent source for current day legislative materials (http://www.parl.gc.ca/).
Here can be found the Journals and Debates for both Houses, as well as
bills, committee business, and other documents from the 35th Parliament
(1996) to present day. The Canada Gazette from 1998 onwards can be found
on a website maintained by the Canada Gazette Directorate (part of the
Government Information Services Branch)
Canada's consolidated statutes and regulations can be found on the Department
of Justice's website at http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/index.html.
Indeed many current day federal legislative publications are easily accessible
to Canadians. As for the retrospective parliamentary documents, the following
are some of the projects currently being undertaken by other organizations.
Library and Archives Canada
In December 2004, Library and Archives Canada (LAC) was invited to participate
in a joint pilot project led by the University of Toronto and the Internet
Archive. The project was intended to test the mass digitisation of bound
volumes using a Kirtas robotic scanner.10
LAC, and other research institutions participating in the project, were
each encouraged to submit up to 1,500 volumes of materials. From the onset,
LAC was interested in selecting (along with other types of materials),
several major government publications. However, they were restricted by
the capabilities of the scanner, which could only accommodate bound hardcover
volumes in good condition and within a specific range of dimensions. As
well, keeping the long term welfare of the books foremost in their minds,
LAC staff chose not to scan extremely rare, or preservation copies of materials
in their collection.
Originally LAC had hoped to digitise Royal Commissions and selected briefs
as a complement to the seminal Massey Commission Report which the former
National Library of Canada had previously digitised. However this was quickly
ruled out because many of the volumes were not physically compatible with
the scanner. After extensive consultation, both internally with its own
specialists, as well as externally, with the Library of Parliament and
Canadiana.org, the official newspaper of the government the Canada Gazette
was chosen. It seemed to be the ideal candidate in terms of content (it's
a firm favourite with researchers) and its physical fit with the requirements
of the scanner. The Gazette for the years 1867-1880 was shipped to the
University of Toronto (where the scanner was set up). Unfortunately, in
the end, not all issues could be scanned, because it was discovered that
the scanner was not capable of handling the thicker and heavier volumes.
However, other popular choices, such as French and English volumes of the
House of Commons Journals (1901-1954) and the Senate Journals (1901-1953),
the Revised Statutes of Canada (1970) and the Committee Proceedings and
Evidence (1901-1934) were successfully digitised.
By participating in this project, LAC was able to acquire, on behalf of
Canadians, relatively inexpensive digital copies of important publications.
Although there were unexpected glitches and delays in the course of the
project, LAC expects to add the digital copies to its electronic collection
The Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC)
The LLMC is an American non-profit organization very similar to Canadiana.org.
Chartered in 1976 and based at the University of Hawaii, its mandate is
to both preserve and provide wider access to legal titles and selected
government documents. Like Canadiana.org, the LLMC started out by distributing
its materials on microfiche. However, in 2003 it too moved into the digital
sphere with the project LLMC Digital. While it has filmed and/or digitised
some other types of government publications (for example, American legislative
journals), the bulk of the collection focuses on legal materials such as
court decisions and reports, legal periodicals, and statutes. While much
of its collection is American in content, it does include a significant
number of primary legal materials from other countries.
In regards to Canada, LLMC Digital will include pre-Confederation statutes,
as well as post-Confederation statutes for the federal, provincial and
territorial governments. Also either already digitised or scheduled to
be digitised are such titles as: Cameron's Supreme Court Cases, the Canadian
Law Times, Canadian Criminal Cases Annotated, Dominion Law Reports and
law reports from the various provinces and many other monographs and serials.
For a complete list of Canadian titles intended to be digitised, please
visit http://www.llmc.com/canadian_collection.htm. The collection is available
by subscription only.
Looking Towards the Future
In January 2006, Canadiana.org signed a three-year agreement with the Canadian
Research Knowledge Network (CRKN) which has seen the ECO database licensed
to forty-six Canadian academic and research libraries. With this agreement,
as well as licensing agreements with other non-academic libraries, eighty-five
percent of Canadiana.org's operations budget will now come from subscription
fees. (The remaining funding is obtained through grants, active fundraising
and microfiche sales.) Following Canadiana.org's June 2005 Strategic Meeting,
which had stakeholders discussing sustainability and the organization's
future, the CRKN license agreement is, according to Canadiana.org President
John Teskey, a very welcome development. This three-year agreement will
allow Canadiana.org to continue to produce new content
. Executive Director,
Magdalene Albert, notes that: The partnership between Canadiana.org and
the research community has been strengthened and is complemented by the
substantial in-kind support of Library and Archives Canada. Although far
from assuring Canadiana.org's long term survival, this agreement gives
the organization a good measure of stability as it begins its next major
project in the spring of this year the digitisation of pre-1920 Canadian
Despite providing many challenges over the past six years, the Canada in
the Making project has been a success. An unprecedented number of Canada's
early government publications have been made easily accessible to researchers;
usage of ECO continues to rise substantially and subscription revenue has
increased, bringing Canadiana.org closer to becoming a completely sustainable
organization. By going digital, Canadiana.org has continued to fulfill
its mandate to the research community, while broadening its user base to
include the larger public. Indeed, the high degree of interest that has
been expressed by genealogists, amateur historians and other members of
the general public had simply not been anticipated. To acknowledge the
success of the CITM project, Canadiana.org is in the process of planning
a June celebration along with its supporters.
1. Canada Council, Consultative Group on University Research Libraries,
University Research Libraries: Report of the Consultative Group on University
Research Libraries (Ottawa: Canada Council, 1978), 25.
2. Canada Council, Consultative Group on University Research Libraries,
University Research Libraries: Report of the Consultative Group on University
Research Libraries (Ottawa: Canada Council, 1978), 26.
3. Burningham, Bradd and Gilles Chiasson, Achieving the Balance: a Report
on the Results of CIHM's Phase IV Survey Project, Facsimile 19 (May 1988),
4. Bertrum MacDonald, Getting the Books Published: the Instrumental Role
of Governments and their Agencies, Facsimile 19 (May 1998): 13-18.
5. Note: for a more thorough overview of the collection, please go to:
6. The author would like to express gratitude to Cynthia Hubbertz, Chief,
Collection Development, Library of Parliament, for her assistance in preparing
the description of the Reconstituted Debates.
7. David Farr, Reconstituting the Early Debates of the Parliament of Canada,
Canadian Parliamentary Review, (vol. 15, no. 1, spring 1992).
8. For more information on this project, please see:
Reconstituted Debates of the House of Commons can be found on ECO at this
The Reconstituted Debates of the Senate are located at this address:
9. A complete list of our partners and subscribers can be found at:
10. The author wishes to thank Pat MacDonald, Chief, Selection and Searching
Unit, Library and Archives Canada (LAC) for providing background information
on the project. Ms. MacDonald was responsible for coordinating LACs involvement,
mostly in terms of the selection, description and shipping of books. Thanks
also to Ian McDonald, Government and Law Specialist, Reference and Genealogy
Division, Library and Archives Canada.